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Klein, R. Light breezes to day, the wind much more fair than it has been so that we began to get to the Southward. In the rod outer segment cytoplasm, all- trans retinal is converted to all- trans retinol by reduction that is http://replace.me/28187.txt by members of the subfamily of serine alcohol dehydrogenases retinol dehydrogenases; RDH namely RDH8 and possibly RDH12 [ 9394 ] Fig. Pharmacologic magnetic resonance http://replace.me/20351.txt phMRI dindows imaging drug action in the brain. Little wind today; in some sea water, which was taken windows 10 1703 download iso italys largest dog board to season a cask, observed a very minute sea Insect, which Dr Solander describd by the name of Podura marina. Pharmacological MRI combined with electrophysiology in non-human primates: жмите of Lidocaine on primary visual cortex.❿
Boulton M. Melanin and the retinal pigment epithelium. New York: Oxford University Press; Role of ocular melanin in ophthalmic physiology and pathology. Photochem Photobiol. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration.
Prog Retin Eye Res. Iron chelation protects the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE against cell death triggered by diverse stimuli.
Disruption of ceruloplasmin and hephaestin in mice causes retinal iron overload and retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration. Macular degeneration in a patient with aceruloplasminemia, a disease associated with retinal iron overload. J Cell Sci. Usher syndrome: molecular links of pathogenesis, proteins and pathways. Hum Mol Genet. Jeffery G. The albino retina: an abnormality that provides insight into normal retinal development.
Trends Neurosci. Ocular albinism type 1: more than meets the eye. Pigment Cell Res. Marmor MF. Structure, function and disease of the retinal pigment epithelium. Gao H, Hollyfield JG. Aging of the human retina. Differential loss of neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys.
Age-related changes in human RPE cell density and apoptosis proportion in situ. Pathologic features of senile macular degeneration. Accumulation of cholesterol with age in human Bruch's membrane. Drusen proteome analysis: an approach to the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. Drusen complement components C3a and C5a promote choroidal neovascularization. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol. Arch Ophthalmol. Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.
Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration. Complement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration. Variation in factor B BF and complement component 2 C2 genes is associated with age-related macular degeneration. Nat Genet. Strong association of the YH variant in complement factor H at 1q32 with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration.
Complement C3 variant and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med. Mutations in the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 TIMP3 in patients with Sorsby's fundus dystrophy. TIMP-3 is expressed in the human retinal pigment epithelium. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Burke JM.
Epithelial phenotype and the RPE: is the answer blowing in the Wnt? The electrogenic sodium pump of the frog retinal pigment epithelium. Apical polarity of Na,K-ATPase in retinal pigment epithelium is linked to a reversal of the ankyrin-fodrin submembrane cytoskeleton. Functional roles of bestrophins in ocular epithelia.
Prog Ret Eye Res. Mechanisms regulating tissue-specific polarity of monocarboxylate transporters and their chaperone CD in kidney and retinal epithelia. Marmorstein AD. The polarity of the retinal pigment epithelium. Phagocytosis of rod outer segments by retinal pigment epithelial cells requires alpha v beta5 integrin for binding but not for internalization. Am J Physiol.
Bazan NG. Neuroprotectin D1-mediated anti-inflammatory and survival signaling in stroke, retinal degenerations, and Alzheimer's disease. J Lipid Res. Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease. Bressler SB. Introduction: understanding the role of angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents in age-related macular degeneration.
Dibas A, Yorio T. Regulation of transport in the RPE. Humana Press; Rymer J, Wildsoet CF. The role of the retinal pigment epithelium in eye growth regulation and myopia: a review.
Vis Neurosci. Ion channels in the RPE. Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment.
Retraction and remodeling of rod spherules are early events following experimental retinal detachment: an ultrastructural study using serial sections. Mol Vis. Control of subretinal fluid and mechanisms of serous detachment. Light-induced responses of the retinal pigment epithelium. Aquaporin-1 channels in human reitnal pigment epithelium: role in transepithelial water movement. Transport mechanisms in the retinal pigment epithelium. CO2-induced ion and fluid transport in human retinal pigment epithelium.
J Gen Physiol. Retinal pigment epithelial transport mechanisms and their contributions to the electroretinogram. Molecular physiology of bestrophins: multifunctional membrane proteins linked to best disease and other retinopathies. Physiol Rev. Clinical electrophysiology of the retinal pigment epithelium. Doc Ophthalmol. Looking chloride channels straight in the eye: bestrophins, lipofuscinosis and retinal degeneration. Identification of the gene responsible for Best macular dystrophy.
The vitelliform macular dystrophy protein defines a new family of chloride channels. Biallelic mutation of BEST1 causes a distinct retinopathy in humans. Missense mutations in a retinal pigment epithelium protein, bestrophin-1, cause retinitis pigmentosa. In vivo fundus autofluorescence in macular dystrophies.
Fundus autofluorescence and vitelliform macular dystrophy. Wald G. Carotenoids and the Visual Cycle. Isomerization of all-trans-retinoids to cis-retinoids in vitro. Thompson DA, Gal A. Genetic defects in vitamin A metabolism of the retinal pigment epithelium. Developments in ophthalmology. Diseases caused by defects in the visual cycle: retinoids as potential therapeutic agents. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.
J Biol Chem. ABCR expression in foveal cone photoreceptors and its role in Stargardt macular dystrophy. Sun H, Nathans J. Stargardt's ABCR is localized to the disc membrane of retinal rod outer segments. J Bioenerg Biomembrane.
Insights into the function of Rim protein in photoreceptors and etiology of Stargardt's disease from the phenotype in abcr knockout mice. Dual-substrate specificity short chain retinol dehydrogenases from the vertebrate retina. Identification and characterization of all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase from photoreceptor outer segments, the visual cycle enzyme that reduces all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol.
Purification and characterization of a retinol-binding glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by bovine neural retina. A membrane receptor for retinol binding protein mediates cellular uptake of vitamin A. Molecular and biochemical characterization of lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Molecular cloning and expression of RPE65, a novel retinal pigment epithelium-specific microsomal protein that is post-transcriptionally regulated in vitro.
Molecular characterization of the human gene encoding an abundant 61 kDa protein specific to the retinal pigment epithelium. Rpe65 is the retinoid isomerase in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. RPE65 is an iron II -dependent isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle. Mutation of key residues of RPE65 abolishes its enzymatic role as isomerohydrolase in the visual cycle.
Mutations in RPE65 cause Leber's congenital amaurosis. Nature Genet. Mutations in RPE65 cause autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Mutations in the gene encoding lecithin retinol acyltransferase are associated with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy.
Immunocytochemical localization of two retinoid-binding proteins in vertebrate retina. Hao W, Fong HK. Blue and ultraviolet light-absorbing opsin from the retinal pigment epithelium. The retinal G protein-coupled receptor RGR enhances isomerohydrolase activity independent of light. Retinal pigment epithelium-retinal G protein receptor-opsin mediates light-dependent translocation of all-trans-retinyl esters for synthesis of visual chromophore in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Saari JC, Bredberg L. Enzymatic reduction of cis-retinal bound to cellular retinal-binding protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. Activity of human cis-retinol dehydrogenase Rdh5 with steroids and retinoids and expression of its mRNA in extra-ocular human tissue. Biochem J. Mutation of the gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
Bothnia dystrophy caused by mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene RLBP1 on chromosome 15q Mutations in the gene encoding cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus. Muller cells of chicken retina synthesize cis-retinol. Human cone photoreceptor dependence on RPE65 isomerase.
Nrl-knockout mice deficient in Rpe65 fail to synthesize cis retinal and cone outer segments. An alternative pathway mediates the mouse and human cone visual cycle. Curr Biol. Chicken retinas contain a retinoid isomerase activity that catalyzes the direct conversion of all-trans-retinol to cis-retinol.
Early-onset severe rod-cone dystrophy in young children with RPE65 mutations. Autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy associated with two novel mutations in the RPE65 gene. Eur J Hum Genet. Mutations in the RPE65 gene in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa or leber congenital amaurosis. A homozygous deletion in RPE65 in a small Sardinian family with autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. A TyrHis RPE65 founder mutation is associated with variable expression and progression of early onset retinal dystrophy in 10 families of a genetically isolated population.
Journal of medical genetics. Clinical course and visual function in a family with mutations in the RPE65 gene. Retinal dystrophies caused by mutations in RPE assessment of visual functions. Br J Ophthalmol. Mutation analysis of 3 genes in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. Genetics and phenotypes of RPE65 mutations in inherited retinal degeneration.
Leber congenital amaurosis: genes, proteins and disease mechanisms. Leber congenital amaurosis: comprehensive survey of the genetic heterogeneity, refinement of the clinical definition, and genotype-phenotype correlations as a strategy for molecular diagnosis. Human mutation. Mutations in RGR, encoding a light-sensitive opsin homologue, in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.
Thirty-year follow-up of a patient with leber congenital amaurosis and novel RPE65 mutations. Am J Ophthalmol. Identification of novel mutations in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and juvenile RP by genome-wide homozygosity mapping with SNP microarrays. Mutational analysis and clinical correlation in Leber congenital amaurosis. Ophthalmic Genet.
Phenotype of three consanguineous Tunisian families with early-onset retinal degeneration caused by an R91W homozygous mutation in the RPE65 gene. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success. J Genet. A comprehensive clinical and biochemical functional study of a novel RPE65 hypomorphic mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation for leber congenital amaurosis in Northern Pakistan.
Molecular characterization of Leber congenital amaurosis in Koreans. Clinical and molecular genetics of Leber's congenital amaurosis: a multicenter study of Italian patients.
Four novel mutations in the RPE65 gene in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. Genetic analysis of Indian families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa by homozygosity screening.
Analysis of three genes in Leber congenital amaurosis in Indonesian patients. Impact of retinal disease-associated RPE65 mutations on retinoid isomerization.
Impacts of two point mutations of RPE65 from Leber's congenital amaurosis on the stability, subcellular localization and isomerohydrolase activity of RPE FEBS Lett. Predicting the pathogenicity of RPE65 mutations. Redmond TM. Focus on Molecules: RPE65, the visual cycle retinol isomerase. Exp Eye Res. R91W mutation in Rpe65 leads to milder early-onset retinal dystrophy due to the generation of low levels of cis-retinal. Two point mutations of RPE65 from patients with retinal dystrophies decrease the stability of RPE65 protein and abolish its isomerohydrolase activity.
Longitudinal and cross-sectional study of patients with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy associated with RPE65 mutations. Lack of fundus autofluorescence to nanometers from childhood on in patients with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy associated with mutations in RPE Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate.
Koenekoop RK. Photoreceptor layer topography in children with leber congenital amaurosis caused by RPE65 mutations. Defining the residual vision in leber congenital amaurosis caused by RPE65 mutations. Congenital stationary night blindness in the dog: common mutation in the RPE65 gene indicates founder effect. The Briard dog: a new animal model of congenital stationary night blindness. Slowly progressive changes of the retina, retinal pigment epithelium in Briard dogs with hereditary retinal dystrophy A morphological study.
Long-term restoration of rod and cone vision by single dose rAAV-mediated gene transfer to the retina in a canine model of childhood blindness.
Mol Ther. Gene therapy restores vision in a canine model of childhood blindness. Restoration of vision in RPEdeficient Briard dogs using an AAV serotype 4 vector that specifically targets the retinal pigmented epithelium.
Gene Ther. J Hered. Morphological aspects related to long-term functional improvement of the retina in the 4 years following rAAV-mediated gene transfer in the RPE65 null mutation dog. Adv Exp Med Biol. Effect of gene therapy on visual function in Leber's congenital amaurosis. Human RPE65 gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis: persistence of early visual improvements and safety at 1 year.
Hum Gene Ther. Treatment of leber congenital amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: short-term results of a phase I trial.
Age-dependent effects of RPE65 gene therapy for Leber's congenital amaurosis: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Safety and efficacy of gene transfer for Leber's congenital amaurosis.
Genomic organization and mutation analysis of the gene encoding lecithin retinol acyltransferase in human retinal pigment epithelium. Screening genes of the retinoid metabolism: novel LRAT mutation in leber congenital amaurosis. Low prevalence of lecithin retinol acyltransferase mutations in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
A novel compound heterozygous mutation in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene RLBP1 in a patient with retinitis punctata albescens. Newfoundland rod-cone dystrophy, an early-onset retinal dystrophy, is caused by splice-junction mutations in RLBP1. Novel mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene RLBP1 associated with retinitis punctata albescens: evidence of interfamilial genetic heterogeneity and fundus changes in heterozygotes.
Clinical genetics. Experimental autoimmune uveitis induced by immunization with retinal pigment epithelium-specific kDa protein peptides. Curr Eye Res. Compound heterozygous RDH5 mutations in familial fleck retina with night blindness.
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. Mutations in the cis retinol dehydrogenase gene in Japanese patients with Fundus albipunctatus. Fundus albipunctatus in a 6-year old girl due to compound heterozygous mutations in the RDH5 gene. A novel compound heterozygous mutation in the RDH5 gene in a patient with fundus albipunctatus.
A high association with cone dystrophy in Fundus albipunctatus caused by mutations of the RDH5 gene. Young monozygotic twin sisters with fundus albipunctatus and cone dystrophy. A novel Gly35Ser mutation in the RDH5 gene in a Japanese family with fundus albipunctatus associated with cone dystrophy. Novel RDH5 mutation in family with mother having fundus albipunctatus and three children with retinitis pigmentosa. A novel RDH5 gene mutation in a patient with fundus albipunctatus presenting with macular atrophy and fading white dots.
Ocular phenotype of bothnia dystrophy, an autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa associated with an RW mutation in the RLBP1 gene. De Laey JJ. Flecked retina disorders. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. Long-term follow-up of the physiologic abnormalities and fundus changes in fundus albipunctatus.
Diagnosis in a patient with fundus albipunctatus and atypical fundus changes. Fundus albipunctatus associated with cone dystrophy. Cone and rod dysfunction in fundus albipunctatus with RDH5 mutation: an electrophysiological study. Electrophysiological findings in two young patients with Bothnia dystrophy and a mutation in the RLBP1 gene. Rod and cone visual cycle consequences of a null mutation in the cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene in man. High-definition optical coherence tomographic visualization of photoreceptor layer and retinal flecks in fundus albipunctatus associated with cone dystrophy.
A photic visual cycle of rhodopsin regeneration is dependent on Rgr. The endogenous chromophore of retinal G protein-coupled receptor opsin from the pigment epithelium. Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation.
Am J Med Genet. Familial retinol-binding-protein deficiency. Phenotype in retinol deficiency due to a hereditary defect in retinol binding protein synthesis. The cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity of RDH10 and its interaction with visual cycle proteins. Delayed dark adaptation in cis-retinol dehydrogenase-deficient mice: a role of RDH11 in visual processes in vivo.
J Med Genet. Young RW, Droz B. The renewal of protein in retinal rods and cones. Bok D. Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions Friedenwald lecture. Young RW, Bok D. Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process. Young RW. The Bowman Lecture, Biological Renewal. The trade had now lasted us pretty free from squalls or calms these  days it has been in general between  but ever since we have been in it the air has been uncommonly damp, every thing more than usualy liable to mould, and all Iron work to rust, the air has seldom been Clear, but a haize in it which was even perceiveable to the human frame.
Today quite calm, I went out in a boat and took dagysa strumosa , medusa porpita , the same which we before calld asurea, mimus volutator , and cimex  who runns upon the water here in the same manner as C. Lacustris does on our ponds in England.
Towards even two small fish were taken under the stern, they were following a shirt which was towing and showd not the least signs of fear, so that they were taken with a landing net without the least difficulty. Balistes monoceros Linn. Weather pretty good, at night a squall with Lightning and rain, another swallow came to the ship today and was taken with the snippers as soon as he went to roost. Blew fresh this morn with heavy rain; towards noon five swallows came on board and were taken at roosting time, and provd like all we have taken before to be H.
This morn calm; went out in the boat and took what is calld by the Seamen a Portugese man of war, Holothuria Physalis Linn; also Medusa velella L. The Holothuria proved to be one of the most bea[u]tifull sights I had ever seen, it consisted of a small bladder in shape much like the air bladder of fishes, from the bottom of which descended a number of strings of bright blue and red, some three or four feet in length which if touchd stung the person who touchd them in the same manner as nettles, only much stronger: on the top of this Bladder was a membrane which he turnd either one way or the other as the wind blew to receive it, this was veind with pink in an uncommonly beautifull manner, in short the whole together was one of the most beautifull sights I have seen among the mollusca, tho many of them are beautifull.
The floating shells H. Janthina and violacea from their particularity deserve also to be mentiond, they are found floating on the top of the water by means of a small cluster of Bubbles filld with air, which are composd of a tenacious slimey substance, not easily parting with its contents; these keep him suspended on the surface of the water and serve as a hiding for his Eggs, and it is probable that he never goes down to the bottom, or willingly comes near any shore, as his shell is of so brittle a construction that few fresh water snails are so thin.
Every shell contains within it about a teaspoonfull of Liquid, which it easily discharges on being touched, this is of a most beautifull red purple colour and easily dies linnen clothes; it may be well worth inquiry whether or not this is the purpura of the ancients as the shell is certainly found in the Mediterranean.
We have not yet taken a sufficient quantity of the shells to try the experiment, probably we shall do soon. Procellaria oceanica differs very little from P. This morn a shark calld us out of our bedds, and was soon hookd, but as soon broke his hold and went off: at noon went out in the boat but found nothing on the surface of the water; on returning home however found on the sterm of the ship two new species of Lepas vittata and midas , they were both sticking to the bottom in company with the anatifera , of which there was great abundance.
After dinner calld upon deck by another shark, who had been lately wounded by a harpoon, but he was two cunning after his misfortune to bite at our baits, which we much Lamented as he had sucking fish upon him that were quite white, probably a species not yet describd.
Went out in the boat today, took plenty of Helix Janthina and some few of violacea , shot the black toed gull of Penn. It had not yet been describd according to Linnaeus's system, so calld it Larus crepidatus ; its food here seems to be cheifly Helixes which appeard probable at least, on account of its dung being of a lively red colour, much like that which was procurd from the shells.
I was drove home from this excursion by a very heavy squall of rain, which intirely wetted me through long before it was possible to return to the ship, however I receivd no other harm from the ducking than the present inconvenience of being so thoroughly wet.
The remainder of today was very squally, with much rain; indeed it has been so ever since we lost the trade, and the people who have been here before say that it is generaly so in these latitudes; I can liken it to nothing so much as April in England, when it is very showery, the weather is never certain for two hours, or indeed half the time, tho calms spend much the greatest part of our time in idleness.
Today much like yesterday, very squally; saw a dolphin, and admired the infinite beauty of his colour as he swam in the water, but in vain, he would not give us even a chance of taking him. A shark, squalus carcharias Linn. The pilot fish Gasterosteus ductor Linn. The blubbers taken today were Beroe Labiata and Marsupialis Mss, the first of which made a pretty appearance in the water, by reason of its swimmers, which line its sides like fringes, and are of a changeable fire colour; Callirhoe bivia Mss, the most lifeless lump of Jelly I have seen, it scarcely seems to be possessd of life but for one or two motions we saw it make.
Calm this Morn; a shark was taken, but not one pilot fish attended him, which is rather uncommon as they seldom are without a shoal of from ten to twenty. At noon I went in the boat, and took the Sallee man Phyllodoce velella Linn. We saw several of the latter today, and observd many small fish under their tentacula who seemd to shelter there as if with its stings it could defend them from large enemies. Ventur'd out today, but found the surface of the water so ruffled that nothing at all floated upon it, I had the good fortune however to see a bird of the shearwater kind which I shot, and it provd to be not describd; it was about as large as the common but differd from it in being whiter, especialy about the face: calld it Procellaria crepidata , as its feet were like the gulls shot last week, black without but white near the leggs.
A large shoal of fish were all this day under the shipp's stern, playing about, but refusing to take bait; we however contrivd to take one of them with a fish gigg, which provd not describd; it was in make and appearance like a Carp, weighing near two pounds, its sides were ornamented with narrow yellow lines and its finns almost intirely coverd with scales: calld it Chaetodon cyprinaceus. A fine breeze of wind started up last night which held us all day, so I found it impossible to go out in the boat; tonight however to make these 24 hours not intirely unprofitable I had the opportunity of seeing a Phenomenon I had never before met with, a lunar rainbow which appeard about ten O'Clock very faint and almost or quite without colour, so that it could be tracd by little More than an appearance which lookd like shade on a cloud.
This morn went out in the boat but caught no one thing, I had never been before so unfortunate. Wind continued to blow fresh so we had little doubt of the reality of yesterdays hopes. This evening trying as I have often foolishly no doubt done to exercise myself by playing tricks with two ropes in the Cabbin I got a fall which hurt me a good deal and alarmd me more, as the blow was on my head, and two hours after it I was taken with sickness at my stomack which made me fear some ill consequence.
Today thank God I was much better and easd of all apprehensions, the wind continuing fair and I had given over all thoughts of boat expeditions for some time at least. Trade continues. Today the cat killd our bird M. Avida who had lived with us ever since the 29th of Septr intirely on the flies which he caught for himself; he was hearty and in high health so that probably he might have livd a great while longer had fate been more kind. Trade had got more to the Southward that it usualy had been, which was unlucky for me as I proposd to the Captain to touch for part of a day at least at the Island of Ferdinand Norronha, which he had no objection to if we could fetch it: that however seemd very uncertain.
This Evening we saw 6 or 7 large fish of the whale kind which the Seamen calld Grampuses tho I think they were very different from the fish commonly so calld; they were however Certainly of the whale kind and blew throug[h] two? They had heads smaller and rounder than those fish in general have and very low back finns and very small tails; thus much was all that I could see as they never came within two cables lengh of the ship. Trade today was still more to the Southward, almost due South, so that we tackd and stood to the eastward lest we should fall in with the coast of Brazil to the Northward of Cape Frio.
Wind today as fair as we could wish, ship layd up so well that it renewd our hopes of touching at the Island. About noon today we experiencd what the Seamen call a white squall, that is a gust of wind which came upon us quite unawares, unattended with a cloud as squalls in general are and therefore took us quite unprepard; it was however very slight so no ill consequence ensued except Mr Parkinson and his potts going to leward, which diverted us more than it hurt him.
This morn about 8 O'Clock crossed the Aequinoctial line in about 33 degrees West Longitude from Greenwich, at the rate of four knotts which our seamen said was an uncommonly good breeze, the Thermometer standing at The Thermometers used in this voyage are two of Mr Birds making after Farenheights scale, which seldom differ above a degree from each other and that not till they are as high as 80, in which case the medium between the two instruments is set down.
This Evening the ceremony of ducking the ships company was performed as always customary on crossing the line, when those who have crossd it before Claim a right of ducking all that have not, the whole of the ceremony I shall describe. About dinner time a list was brought into the cabbin containing the names of every body and thing aboard the ship, in which the dogs and catts were not forgot; to this was affixd a petition, sign'd 'the ships company,' desiring leave to examine every body in that List that it might be know[n] whether or not they had crossd the line before.
This was immediately granted; every body was then calld upon the quarter deck and examind by one of the lieutenants who had crossd, he markd every name either to be duckd or let off according as their qualifications directed. Captn Cooke and Doctor Solander were on the Black list, as were my self my servants and doggs, which I was oblig'd to compound for by giving the Duckers a certain quantity of Brandy for which they willingly excusd us the ceremony.
Many of the Men however chose to be duckd rather than give up 4 days allowance of wine which was the price fixd upon, and as for the boys they are always duckd of course; so that about 21 underwent the ceremony which was performd thus:.
A block was made fast to the end of the Main Yard and a long line reved through it, to which three Cross peices of wood were fastned, one of which was put between the leggs of the man who was to be duckd and to this he was tyed very fast, another was for him to hold in his hands and the third was over his head least the rope should be hoisted too near the block and by that means the man be hurt.
When he was fas[t]ned upon this machine the Boatswain gave the command by his whistle and the man was hoisted up as high as the cross peice over his head would allow, when another signal was made and immediately the rope was let go and his own weight carried him down, he was then immediately hoisted up again and three times served in this manner which was every mans allowance.
Thus ended the diversion of the day, for the ducking lasted till almost night, and sufficiently diverting it certainly was to see the different faces that were made on this occasion, some grinning and exulting in their hardiness whilst others were almost suffocated and came up ready enough to have compounded after the first or second duck, had such proceeding been allowable.
It is now time that I should say something of the climate and degree of heat since crossing the tropick, as we have been for some time within the bounds which were supposd by the ancients to be uninhabitable on account of their heat. Almost immediately on crossing the tropick the air became sensibly much damper than usual, tho not materialy hotter, the thermometer then in general stood from 80 to The nearer we approachd to the calms still the damper every thing grew, this was perceivable even to the human body and very much so, but more remarkably upon all kinds of furniture: every thing made of Iron rusted so fast that the knives in peoples pockets became almost useless and the razors in cases not free.
All kinds of Leather became mouldy, Portfolios and truncks coverd with black leather were almost white, soon after this mould adheerd to almost every thing, all the books in my Library became mouldy so that they were obligd to be wiped to preserve them. About this time we came into the calms which we met with earlier than usual; the thermometer was then at 83 and we sufferd from the heat and damp together. Bathing however kept me in perfect health, tho many of the ship[s] company were ill of bilious complaints which however were but of short duration.
This continued till we got the S. The air during the whole time sin[c]e we crossed the tropick and indeed sometime before has been nearly of the same temperature throughout the 24 hours, the Thermometer seldom rising above a degree during the time the sun is above the horizon.
The windows of the cabbin have been open without once being shut ever since we left Madeira. Last night and today the weather has been squally, wind rather fresh but keeping very much to the Southward; great plenty of flying fish have been about the ship few or none of which have been seen since we left the N.
Fine weather but Wind rather too much to the Southward. We are today nearly in the latitude of the Island of Fernand de Norhona, so that I am not without hopes of making it if rightly laid down; night however put an end to our hopes for the present at least, and left us in no very agreable situation as shoals and foul ground is laid down all round the Islands.
Fine breeze today, our hopes of seeing the Island were again renewd but without success, so at night we judge ourselves to be past it and that the longitude is wrong laid down. Wind East very pleasant, we now gave up all thoughts of the Island. This Evening the sea appeard uncommonly bea[u]tifull, flashes of light coming from it perfectly resembling small flashes of lightning, and these so frequent that sometimes 8 or ten were visible at the same moment; the seamen were divided in their acco[u]nts some assuring us that it proceeded from fish who made the light by agitating the salt water, as they calld it, in their darting at their prey, while others said that they had often seen them and knew them to be nothing but blubbers Medusas.
This made us very Eager to procure some of them, which at last we did one by the help of the landing net. They prov'd to be a species of Medusa which when brought on board appeard like metal violently heated, emitting a white light; on the surface of this animal a small Lepas was fixd exactly the colour of it, which was almost transparent not unlike thin starch in which a small quantity of blue is disolv'd.
This Morn employd in Examining the things caught last night, which being taken by the light of our lamps for the wind which blows in at the windows always open will not suffer us to burn candles we could hardly then distinguish into genera, much less into species, had the good fortune to find that they were all quite new.
Calld them Medusa pellucens , Lepas pellucens ,, Clio , Cancer fulgens and Cancer amplectens , but we had the misfortune to loose two more species of Crabbs overboard by the tumbling of a glass overboard in which they were containd. In the Evening the Sea was lighted in the same manner as it was last night only not near so strongly; we renewd however our endeavours to take some of the light carriers, not without success as two new species of Crabbs were taken one of which was very singular.
Nothing to be done today, found however that the crabbs taken yesterday were both new, calld them vitreus and Crassicornis. A shoal of small fish were today under our stern who attended the ship for some time; she had however too much way through the water for our instruments so we could not take any of them.
This day was quite void of Events, the wind however was very fair and we now approachd the place where we were next to refresh ourselves apace. This morn the sun was immediately over our heads notwiths[t]anding which the Thermometer was no higher than Since we left the calms under the line the weather has grown cooler by gradual degrees, now we reckon it quite moderate after having felt the heat of 83 so lately.
This Even I for the first time for other people had seen them much before observd two Light spots in the heavens apearing much like the milky way, one the largest and brightest Bore S. Still as we got more to the westward the wind became more favourable, today it was almost aft and has been all along creeping to the northward.
The thermometer kept still gradualy falling as the wind got more to the northward, which appears odd as the North wind should now be the warm wind; we were not yet however enough to the Southward to find much alteration. Wind this morn was North-east, at noon North by west, between this place and mid channel it has changd from South by East.
The Trade being to the Northward upon this coast has been observd long ago, tho I question whether our navigators are sufficiently apprisd of it. Piso in his Natural history of the Brasils says that the winds along shore are constantly to the Northward from October to March and to the southward from March to October. Today light winds and very pleasant weather, the Thermometer was never above Towards evening the colour of the water was observd to change upon which we sounded and found ground at 32 fathom; the lead was cast three times between 6 and 10 without finding a foot difference in the depth or quality of the bottom, which was incrusted with coral; we supposd this to be the tail of a great shoal laid down in all our charts by the name of Albrolhos, on which Ld Anson struck soundings in his outward bound passage.
This morn at four no ground with Fathoms of Line. About noon long ranges of a yellowish colour appeard upon the sea, many of them very large, one the largest might be a mile in lengh and 3 or yards wide. The seamen in general affirmd roundly that they were the spawn of fishes and that they had often seen the same appearance before; upon taking up some of the water so coloured we found it to be causd by innumerable small atoms, each pointed at the end and of a yellowish colour, none of them above a quarter of a line in lengh; in the microscope they appeard to be fasciculi of small fibres interwove one within the other, not unlike the nidi of some Phryganeas which we call caddices.
What they were or for what purposes designd we could not even guess, nor so much as distinguish whether their substance was animal or vegetable. At day break today we made the Land which Provd to be the Continent of S. America in Lat. Doctor Solander and myself went on board this boat in which were 11 men 9 of whom were blacks who all fishd with lines.
We bought of them the cheif part of their cargo consisting of Dolphins, two kinds of large Pelagick Scombers, Sea Bream and the fish calld in the West Indies Welshman, for which they made us pay 19 shillings and Sixpence. We had taken Spanish silver with us which we imagind was the currency of the Continent, we were therefore not a little surprizd that they askd us for English shillings and preferrd two which we by accident had to the Pistereens, tho they after some words took them also.
The Business of these people seemd to be going a good distance from land and catching large fish, which they salted in bulk in a place in the middle of their boat made for that purpose; in this place was about 2 Quintals of fish laid in salt which they offerd to sale for 16 shillings, and would doubtless have taken half the money had we been inclind to buy them, but fresh provisions was all we wanted and the fresh fish they had which we bought servd the whole ships company.
Their provision for the Sea consisted of a cask of water and a bag of the flour of Cassada which they call Farinha de Pao or wooden flour, a very proper name for it which indeed tastes more like powderd chipps than any thing else. Their method of drinking out of their cask of water was truely primitive and pleasd me much.
The cask was large, as broad as the boat and exactly fitted a place in the Ballast made for it, they consequently could not get at the bottom of it to put in a tap by which the water might be drawn out. To remedy this dificulty they made use of a cane about three feet long hollow and open at each end; this the man who wanted to drink desired his neighbour to fill for him, which he did by putting it into the cask, and laying the palm of his hand over the uppermost hole hinderd the water from running out of the other, to which the drinker applyd his mouth and the other taking off his hand lett the liquor run into the drinkers mouth till he was satisfied.
Soon after we came on board a Sphynx was taken which provd to be quite a new one, and a small bird also who was the Tanagra Jacarini of Linn; it seemd however from Linnaeus description as well as Edwards's and Brissons that neither of them had seen the Bird which was in reality a Loxia nitens.
The fish Brought on board provd to be Scomber anxia and Falcatus , Coryphoena Hipparis Sparus pagrus and Sciaena rubens ; the second and last not being before describd we calld them by these names. Afternoon the wind came about South and South by East and it soon came on to blow fresh which we were not at all accustomd to, so we Boarded it along shore without gaining much.
This morn wind continued South and South by west but is more moderate, but still more sea than we should chuse were we directors of the winds and waves.
We however stood in with the land till we found ourselves in a large bay the shores of which were very flat; in the middle of this bay were some large hills which lay far inland and made the prospect very remarkable, as expressd in the view. At this time we were by guess within five miles of the shore and our water had decreasd gradualy till we had less than five fathom; it was about four in the Evening so our Captain thought proper to put about and stand off to sea; in the Evening the wind freshend a little but was not near so troublesome as last night.
Wind more moderate this morn; we stood in with the land and made it nearly in the same place as we left it last night, our soundings being from 15 to 10 fathoms. After dinner the wind came more to the Eastward and freshend, and little peices of Seaweed now came floating by the ship which we took and it provd to be Sargaso fucus natans, which is generaly supposd to increase upon the surface of the sea in the same manner as duck weed Lemna does on fresh water without having any root; this however plainly shewd that it had been rooted in the Coral rock on the bottom, as two specimens particularly had large lumps of the coral still adhering to their bottoms.
Among the weed we got were some few animals but scarcely worth mentioning, one Balistes but quite a fry so young that it was impossible to referr it to its species; a worm also was in it which provd to be Neireis pelagica. In the course of this night we ran over a small bank on which the water suddenly shoald to 7 fathom and kept thereabouts for some time, it however deepend gradualy. Light breezes to day, the wind much more fair than it has been so that we began to get to the Southward.
The Thermometer today was no more than 72, so that we felt cold or cool at least, tho we could [not] prevail on ourselves to shut the cabbin windows as we are soon to come into much warmer weather. Just before dark the Land was seen ahead which we supposed to be an Island off Cape Frio so we hoped to be the lengh of Cape Frio by tomorrow morn.
This morn we were abreast of the land which proved as we thought last night to be the Island just without Cape Frio, which is calld in some maps the Isle of Frio; the wind was fair and we passd it with a pleasant Breeze hoping tomorrow to get into the harbour.
About noon we saw the hill calld Sugar Loaf which is just by the harbours mouth, but it was a long way off yet so there were no hopes of reaching it this night.
The shore from Cape Frio to this place has been one uninterruptd beach of the whitest Colour I ever saw which they tell me is a white sand.
This Evening wind still continued fair but very little, we now saw the Sugar Loaf very plain but could not tonight reach it, so shortend sail; we had seen for some time a small vessel under the land which seemd to steer into the harbour as well as we. The Land all along this Coast has been exceedingly high inland except in the bay mentiond on the 7th: the mountains seen now about Rio Janeiro were immensely high so that some of our people compared them with the Pike of Tenerife, tho I do not myself think they deserve a comparison so much higher is the Pike.
Notwithstanding the hills are high and begin to rise near the shore the beach is sandy and appears to be of a firm sand. This Morn the Harbour of Rio Janeiro was right ahead about 2 leagues off but it being quite Calm we made our aproaches very slowly.
The sea was inconceveably full of small vermes which we took without the least dificulty; they were almost all new except Beroe labiata, Medusa radiata, fimbriata and Chrystallina, Dagysa . Soon after that a fishing boat Came a board and sold us three Scombers which proved to be new and were calld Salmoneus; his baites were Clupea Chinensis of which we also procurd specimens.
As soon as we came well into the River the Captn sent Mr Hicks his first Leutenant with a midshipman to get a pilot and stood up the river expecting him down very soon. He did not nor did the boat till we were on the point of dropping an anchor just under the town; the boat then came without either of our officers, in exchange for whom came a Subaltern Portugese who seemd to have no kind of Business with us; the Cockswain brought word from the Leutenant that he was detaind on shore till the Captain should go off.
Soon after we came to an anchor a ten Oard boat came alongside the ship with 12 or 14 soldiers in it who rowed round us without taking any notice of us or saying a word; a quarter of an hour after came a boat in which was a Disembargador and a Colonel of a Portugese rejument who askd us many questions which at first seemd to discourage our stay, as telling us that the Governor would furnish us with any quantity of water in two days.
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